REVIEW ARTICLE


High-Frequency Time-Resolved Scanning Acoustic Microscopy for Biomedical Applications



Pavlos Anastasiadis1, 2, *, Pavel V. Zinin3, 4
1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
2 Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
3 Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
4 Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific and Technological Center of Unique Instrumentation, Moscow, Russia


© 2018 Anastasiadis and Zinin.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this authors at the Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA); Tel: +1 (808)265-6288, Off-Tel: +1 (410) 706-4499; E-mails: panast@som.umaryland.edu, zinin@hawaii.edu


Abstract

High-frequency focused ultrasound has emerged as a powerful modality for both biomedical imaging and elastography. It is gaining more attention due to its capability to outperform many other imaging modalities at a submicron resolution. Besides imaging, high-frequency ultrasound or acoustic biomicroscopy has been used in a wide range of applications to assess the elastic and mechanical properties at the tissue and single cell level. The interest in acoustic microscopy stems from the awareness of the relationship between biomechanical and the underlying biochemical processes in cells and the vast impact these interactions have on the onset and progression of disease. Furthermore, ultrasound biomicroscopy is characterized by its non-invasive and non-destructive approach. This, in turn, allows for spatiotemporal studies of dynamic processes without the employment of histochemistry that can compromise the integrity of the samples. Numerous techniques have been developed in the field of acoustic microscopy. This review paper discusses high-frequency ultrasound theory and applications for both imaging and elastography.

Keywords: Focused Ultrasound (FUS), High-frequency Ultrasound (HIFU), Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM), Cancer metastasis, Tumor microenvironment, Biomechanical properties, Elastography, Ultrasound biomicroscopy.