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Diagnosis of Lymphatic Metastasis in Breast Cancer Using Nanoparticle Technology - Diagnosis, Therapy, Imaging, Treatment



Novietta De Britto1, R Neeraja2, L. Jani Anbarasi2, Vinayakumar Ravi4, *, Syed Ibrahim S P2, Malathy Jawahar3, Alanoud Al Mazroa5
1 North Carolina State University, College of Engineering, Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering - UNC and NC State
2 School of Computer Science and Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Chennai, India
3 Leather Process Technology Division, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai, India
4 Center for Artificial Intelligence, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Information Systems, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia


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© 2024 The Author(s). Published by Bentham Open.

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* Address correspondence to this author at the Center for Artificial Intelligence, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia; E-mail: vinayakumarr77@gmail.com


Abstract

Breast cancer is a major cause of patient death rates, frequently leading to life-changing repercussions even after survival is attained. This paper aims to investigate therapeutic alternatives employing nanoparticles to specifically target and treat lymphatic metastasis, which is a highly dangerous characteristic of breast cancer. This work explores the effectiveness and importance of using nanoparticle-based therapeutics to prevent the harmful consequences of breast cancer progression. The paper begins by discussing the progress of lymphatic metastasis and then delves into the use of nanoparticle technology in imaging techniques, diagnostic methods, and therapy tactics. This section provides detailed information on primary targeting treatments, including chemotherapy specifically targeting cancer stem cells, induction of tumour cell death, suppression of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), manipulation of the Tumour Microenvironment (TME), and improvement of the immune response. In addition, the research explores the use of nanoparticle technology in treatment plans, specifically focusing on its super magnetic capabilities and the application of gold nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, and other related qualities. Nanoparticle technology presents an optimistic strategy to address lymphatic metastasis in breast cancer. Nanoparticles can be used to deliver drugs or therapeutic substances directly to cancerous tumours, specifically targeting cancer cells to either destroy them or slow their growth. This strategy provides a solution for the administration of pharmaceuticals or substances that may provide challenges when delivered using conventional methods. Furthermore, nanoparticles facilitate the visualisation of tumours, aiding healthcare professionals in evaluating the severity of malignancy and formulating suitable treatment strategies. A comprehensive discussion has been conducted on several nanoparticles employed for inhibiting the dissemination of cancer cells from the primary organ to secondary organs. After successfully overcoming breast cancer, patients remain susceptible to post-surgical metastases in vital organs such as the lungs, brain, and bones. The advancements achieved through nanoparticle technology are highly significant. The discussion has focused on experimental evidence offered by researchers who mostly conducted studies on mice to support their findings.

Keywords: Triple negative breast cancer, Metastasis, Circulatory tumor cells, Photo thermal therapy, Extra cellular matrix, Cancer-associated fibroblasts, Blood-brain barrier.