RESEARCH ARTICLE


MRI of Perfusion-Diffusion Mismatch in Non-Human Primate (Baboon) Stroke: A Preliminary Report



Hsiao-Ying Wey 1, 2, Ghazwan M Kroma 2, Jinqi Li 1, 2, M. Michelle Leland 5, Lisa Jones 5, Timothy Q Duong*, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6
1 Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
2 Research Imaging Institute, Departments of Radiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
3 Research Imaging Institute, Departments of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
4 Research Imaging Institute, Departments of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
5 Laboratory Animal Resources, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
6 South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX


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© Wey et al; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 8403 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA; Tel: 210 567 8120; Fax: 210 567 8152; E-mail: duongt@uthscsa.edu


Abstract

The goal of this study was to develop a clinically relevant non-human primate (baboon) stroke model and multi-parametric MRI protocols on a clinical scanner with long-term goals to better model human stroke and facilitate clinical translations of novel therapeutic strategies. Baboons were chosen because of their relatively large brain volume and that they are evolutionarily close to humans. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced using a minimally invasive endovascular approach to guide an inflatable balloon catheter into the MCA and followed by permanently or transiently inflate the balloon. Using multimodal MRI, including perfusion and diffusion imaging, the spatiotemporal dynamic evolution of the ischemic lesions in permanent and transient occlusion experiments in baboons were investigated. Perfusion-diffusion mismatch, which approximates the ischemic penumbra, was detected. In the permanent MCAO group (n = 2), the mean infarct volume was 29 ml (17% of total brain volume) whereas in the transient MCAO group (n = 2, 60 or 90 min of occlusion), the mean infarct volume was 15 ml (9% of total brain volume). Substantial perfusion-diffusion mismatch tissue (~50%) was salvaged by reperfusion compared to permanent MCAO. This baboon stroke model has the potential to become a translational platform to better design clinical studies, guide clinical diagnosis and improve treatment time windows in patients.

Keywords: Penumbra, cerebral ischemia, middle cerebral artery occlusion, nonhuman primate, perfusion, diffusion, magnetic resonance imaging.