A Three-dimensional Deformable Brain Atlas for DBS Targeting. I. Methodology for Atlas Creation and Artifact Reduction

Atchar Sudhyadhoma, *, Michael S Okunb, Kelly D Footea, Maryam Rahmana, Frank J Bovaa
a Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL USA
b Department of Neurology, Movement Disorders Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL USA

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© Sudhyadhom et al; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Neurosurgery University of Florida Box 100265 Gainesville, Florida 32608; USA; Tel: 352-273-5569; E-mail:



Targeting in deep brain stimulation (DBS) relies heavily on the ability to accurately localize particular anatomic brain structures. Direct targeting of subcortical structures has been limited by the ability to visualize relevant DBS targets.

Methods and Results:

In this work, we describe the development and implementation, of a methodology utilized to create a three dimensional deformable atlas for DBS surgery. This atlas was designed to correspond to the print version of the Schaltenbrand-Bailey atlas structural contours. We employed a smoothing technique to reduce artifacts inherent in the print version.


We present the methodology used to create a three dimensional patient specific DBS atlas which may in the future be tested for clinical utility.

Keywords: Deep brain stimulation, Targeting, deep brain stimulation, atlas.