Absolute Oxygenation Metabolism Measurements Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Hongyu An*, 1, Qingwei Liu1, Cihat Eldeniz1, Weili Lin1, 2
1 Department of Radiology and Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
2 Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 2092
Abstract HTML Views: 774
PDF Downloads: 443
Total Views/Downloads: 3309
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1107
Abstract HTML Views: 430
PDF Downloads: 334
Total Views/Downloads: 1871

Creative Commons License
© An et al;Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Biomedical Research Imaging Center, CB#7513, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Tel: (919) 843-8256; Fax: (919) 843-4456; E-mail:


Cerebral oxygen metabolism plays a critical role in maintaining normal function of the brain. It is the primary energy source to sustain neuronal functions. Abnormalities in oxygen metabolism occur in various neuro-pathologic conditions such as ischemic stroke, cerebral trauma, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and shock. Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure tissue oxygenation and oxygen metabolism is essential to the understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of various diseases. The focus of this review is to provide an introduction of various blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast methods for absolute measurements of tissue oxygenation, including both magnitude and phase image based approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, oxygenation metabolism quantification, blood oxygenation level dependent, cerebral oxygen saturation, oxygen extraction fraction, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization, susceptibility weighted imaging.