Dynamic Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Infarct Formation and Peri-infarct Spreading Depression after Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) in macacca fasicularis

Helen E D’Arceuil*, Alex de Crespigny
Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

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© D’Arceuil and de Crespigny; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Rm 2301, Bldg 149, 13th St., Charlestown, MA 02129, USA; E-mail:


Dynamic diffusion MRI was used to visualize hyperacute stroke formation in the brain of a cynomolgus macaque. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a microcatheter was placed into the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The animal was immediately transferred to a 1.5T clinical scanner. Dynamic T2-weighted imaging during bolus injection of Oxygen-17 enriched water through the microcatheter mapped out the territory perfused by the MCA segment. Serial diffusion measurements were made using diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging, with a temporal resolution of 15 seconds, during injection of a glue embolus into the microcatheter. The apparent diffusion coefficient declined within the lesion core. A wave of transient diffusion decline spread through peripheral uninvolved brain immediately following stroke induction. The propagation speed and pattern is consistent with spreading peri-infarct depolarizations (PID). The detection of PIDs following embolic stroke in a higher nonhuman primate brain supports the hypothesis that spreading depressions may occur following occlusive stroke in humans.

Keywords: Non-human primates, MCAo, Stroke, Oxygen-17, Cortical spreading depression (CSD), Diffusion MRI.